安全管理网

人机功效学培训

文档来源: 安全管理网
点 击 数:
更新时间: 2021年05月02日
下载地址: 点击这里
文件大小: 3.78 MB 共47页
文档格式: PPT       
下载点数: 19 点(VIP免费)
人机功效学 主讲人:XXX 时间:XXX 备注:1 目 录 CONTENTS 1 2 人工搬运的危害与风险 办公室工作环境的危害及风险 Hazards and Risks Associated with Manual Material Handling of Loads Hazards and Risks Associated with Office Work Environment 备注:2 Part 章 节 01 人工搬运的危害与风险 Hazards and Risks Associated with Manual Material Handling of Loads 备注:3 Occupational Ergonomics人体工效学 Occupational Ergonomics is the art and science of reducing physical and psychological problems that might arise from the interaction between people, equipment and the environment. 人体工程学是一门研究减少由人、设备和环境之间的相互作用而可能产生 的身体和心理问题的科学。 Primary focus of an ergonomics program is the reduction of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD). 人体工程学主要关注点是减少与工作有关的肌肉骨骼损伤。 work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD). 人体工程学主要关注点是减少与工作有关的肌肉骨骼损伤。 备注:4 Occupational Ergonomics人体工效学 This is accomplished through the management of employee exposure to workplace hazards 控制下面工作场所中的危害因素,可以达到上述目标 : Awkward postures/不良的、笨拙的姿势 Forceful exertions/用力过度 High rates of repetition/重复性高 备注:5 Cumulative Trauma Disorder 累积性外伤 Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorder工作相关的肌肉骨骼损伤 Repetitive Motion Injury 重复运动损伤 Repetitive Strain Injury 重复过度疲劳损伤 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 腕管综合症 Low Back Pain 腰背痛 Tendonitis/Tenosynovitis 肌腱发炎/滑膜炎 备注:6 Manual Handling of Loads人工搬运的定义 Manual handling of loads (MHL) is any of the following activities carried out by one or more workers.以下任何一种由一人或多人完成的活动称为人工搬运 Lifting Holding Putting down Pushing Pulling Carrying or moving 将物品提升(高) 托物 放下 推 拉 运送或移动 备注:7 Ergo Risk Factor of MHL人工搬运的人体工程学因素 There are several risk factors that make MHL hazardous and thereby increase the possibility of injury. 下面几个因素会导致作业人员受到损伤,及增加了受伤的可能性 Contact Stress 接触压力 Temperature 温度 Vibration 振动 1 2 3 用力 姿势 频率 备注:8 MHL Hazards & Solutions: Force MHL危害因素和解决方法:用力 Lifting out of a bin 从储物箱内取出物品 Difficult pulling 费力拉运 Difficult power gripping 抓握困难 HAZARDS危害 备注:9 MHL Hazards & Solutions: Force MHL危害因素和解决方法:用力 Use lift/tilt devices 使用升降翻转装置 Use good power grips 使用好的抓握 Use powered pallet jack 使用机动托盘车 SOLUTIONS解决方法 备注:10 HAZARDS 危害 MHL Hazards & Solutions: Other-contact stress MHL 危害和解决办法:其他-接触压力 Tool digging into fingers/palm/hand 工具抵在手指/手掌/手上 HAZARDS 危害 SOLUTIONS 解决办法 HAZARDS 危害 Use tools with handles that extend past the palm 使用手柄长过手掌的工具 备注:11 HAZARDS 危害 MHL Hazards & Solutions: Repetition MHL 危害和解决办法:重复动作 Repetitive lifting and carrying 重复搬运 HAZARDS 危害 SOLUTIONS 解决办法 HAZARDS 危害 Use roller conveyors reduce lifting/handling 使用滚轴输送机,以减少搬运; Job rotation工作轮换 Frequent breaks工间休息 备注:12 MHL Risk Assessment: Force MHL风险评价:用力 Excessive weights must not be lifted without mechanical assistance 不能人工搬抬过重的物品 Lifting of weights 搬抬重物 备注:13 MHL Risk Assessment: Contact Stress MHL 风险评估:接触压力 Parts of the body must not continuously rest or be supported against hard or sharp surfaces 身体的部位不能连续地搁或扶在硬或锋利的边缘面 Forearm support against hard surface 前臂搁在硬面上 Wrist/forearm support against hard surface 手腕/前臂搁在硬面上 备注:14 MHL Hazards & Solutions: Posture MHL 危害因素和解决办法:姿势 HAZARDS 危害 Bending forward 向前弯腰 Elbows/ arms away from body 肘/手臂 远离躯干 Bending wrist sideways 手腕侧弯 备注:15 MHL Hazards & Solutions: Posture MHL 危害因素和解决办法:姿势 SOLUTIONS 解决办法 Adjust work surface height 调整工作面 高度 Use lift tables with turntables on them 使用带 旋转台面的 升降机 Select tools that promote good wrist postures and power grips 选择能促进正确手腕姿势和抓握得工具 备注:16 MHL Risk Assessment : Posture MHL风险评价:姿势 Workstations must be designed for neutral body postures while standing 设备的操作部件,须按作业人员在自然的身体姿势下操作该设备所要求的尺寸设计 Poor standing postures 不佳站姿 Seating must be designed to properly support body postures while seated 设计座椅时,须保证作业人员就座后,椅背恰好支撑作业时的身体姿态 Poor seating support 不佳的座椅支撑 备注:17 MHL Risk Assessment : Posture MHL风险评价:姿势 Routine activities must not require continuous static postures, grips or holds 日常工作中,不能有要求连续的静态姿势、紧握或托住物品的作业 Pinch gripping 捏握 Continuous static standing postures连续性静态站姿 备注:18 MHL Risk Assessment : Posture MHL风险评价:姿势 Routine activities must not require excessive or repetitive neck flexion up, down or side-to-side 日常工作中,不能有要求作业人员过度的或重复的上下或左右弯曲颈部的动作 Side-to-side neck flexion 颈部左右弯曲 Down neck flexion 向下弯曲颈部 备注:19 MHL Risk Assessment : Posture MHL风险评价:姿势 Routine activities must not require continuously repetitive or awkward hand or wrist motions 日常工作中,不能有要求连续重复的或不佳的手或腕部动作 Hand/wrist motions 手/腕动作 Awkward hand/wrist motions 不方便、笨拙的手/腕动作 备注:20 MHL Risk Assessment : Posture MHL风险评价:姿势 Routine activities must be conducted within a close proximity to the body to minimize excessive or repetitive reaching 日常工作中,必须保证物品尽量靠近身体,减少过度的或重复性的身体伸展 Reaching to the product 伸展身体以便取到物品 Routine activities must not require excessive or repetitive reaching to over-the-shoulder heights 日常工作中,不能有要求过度的或重复的将手臂伸到超过肩部高度的动作 Over-the-shoulder reaching 将手臂伸到超过肩部的高度 备注:21 MHL Risk Assessment : Posture MHL风险评价:姿势 Routine activities must not require excessive or repetitive reaching to below-the-knee heights 日常工作中,不能有要求过度的或重复的伸手去够低于膝盖高度的物品的动作 Below-the-knee reaching 伸手去够低于膝盖高度的物品 Routine activities must not require repetitive twisting at the waist while handling loads 日常工作中,不能有要求在搬重物时重复扭腰的动作 Twisting at the waist 扭腰 备注:22 Knuckle height 手指自然下垂处高度 肩高 小腿中间高度 肘高 Shoulder height Mid lower leg height Elbow height General Risk Assessment Guidelines of MHL M H L 一般风险评估导则 General risk assessment guidelines :There is no such thing as a completely “safe” manual handing operation ,But working with in the following guidelines will cut the risk and reduce the need for a more detailed assessment 备注:23 Facts about Forces 用力的真相事实 Forces in your body during lifting are enormous 在搬运物体时人体受力很大 Lifting 12 kg cheese = 300 kg! 搬12公斤的奶酪=300公斤! Garbage collector 1 bag = 1000 kg! 一袋垃圾=1000公斤! Handling capacity reduces as hands move away from trunk 手离躯干的距离越远,搬运能力越低 General rule - holding at arms length increases stress on back 5 times compared to holding close to trunk 一般规律:对于同一件物品,伸平手臂拿住它时对背部产生的拉力,比手臂靠近躯干拿住它时对背部产生的拉力增加了5倍 备注:24 Ergo Risk Factor Identification for MHL M H L人体工效学风险因素识别 Ergonomic risk factor identification form 人体工效学风险因素识别表 Risk factor survey, NOT a detailed ergonomic analysis 风险因素调查,非详细的人体工程学分析 Quick process 快速识别过程 Identifies presence or absence of risk factors, NOT the severity of the risk factors 辨识风险因素有或没有(可能性),而不能评估风险因素的严重程度 Assessment of the job, NOT the employee 评估作业,而不是人员 Identifies jobs with risk factors requiring a more detailed analysis 辨识作业中的风险因素要求更详细的分析 备注:25 MHL Prevention Measures 人工搬运的预防措施 Elimination — consider whether MHL can be avoided, for example by using powered or mechanical handling equipment such as conveyers or lift trucks 消除 — 考虑是否可避免人工搬运重物,例如使用自动的搬运设备,如输送机或起重卡车 Technical measures — if MHL cannot be avoided, consider the use of supporting devices such as hoists, trolleys and vacuum lifting devices 技术措施 — 如果不能避免人工搬运,考虑使用可提供辅助装置,如铰链,推车及真空升降装置 备注:26 MHL Prevention Measures 人工搬运的预防措施 Organizational measures such as job rotation and the introduction of breaks of sufficient length should only be considered if elimination or reduction of MHL risks is not possible. 组织措施,如果不能采取前面两种方式消除或减少人工搬运作业的风险,则应劳动组织措施,如工作轮换及充足的工间休息等措施来降低作业的风险。 Provide information on the risks and adverse health effects of MHL, and training in the use of equipment and correct handling techniques 告知作业人员有关人工搬运的风险,并为他们提供设备使用及搬运技巧的培训。 备注:27 MHL Prevention Measures: Elimination 人工搬运的预防措施:消除 Mechanical assist bag lifting device 机械辅助提升装置 备注:28 MHL Prevention Measures: Technical 人工搬运的预防措施:技术措施 Hand tool design for neutral wrist posture 手动工具的设计:工作时,腕关节的姿势处于自然状态 备注:29 MHL Prevention Measures: Technical 人工搬运的预防措施:技术措施 Storage racks for manual loading/unloading must position the heaviest or most commonly used items on the middle shelf and the lightest or least commonly used items on the top and bottom shelves. 人工装/卸的存储货架,必须将最重的或最常用的用品放置在架子的中部,将最轻的或最不常用的用品放置在架子的顶部或底部。 备注:30 MHL Prevention Measures: Technical 人工搬运的预防措施:技术措施 Workstation lift design to minimize over-the-shoulder reaching 升降工作平台:使伸手过肩的动作最小化 备注:31 MHL Prevention Measures: Technical 人工搬运的预防措施:技术措施 Adjustable workstation design to maximize neutral standing posture 可调式工作平台:使作业人员尽可能地在自然的站姿状态下工作 备注:32 MHL Prevention Measures: Technical 人工搬运的预防措施:技术措施 Lift table to raise bags to a comfortable working height 升降台:使作业人员在舒服的高度上搬运物品 备注:33 MHL Prevention Measures: Technical 人工搬运的预防措施:技术措施 Better chair design to maximize a good seated posture 更好的座椅设计:最舒服的坐姿 备注:34 Correct Handling Techniques – Lifting 正确的搬运技术 — 搬起 Before lifting a load, you need to plan and prepare for the task. Make sure that: 在搬起重物前,你需要根据任务的情况进行计划并做准备。确保: You know where you are going 你知道你要去哪里 The area where you move is clear of obstacles 你的通道上没有障碍物 You have a good grip on the load 你可以很好地抓住要搬运的货物 Your hands, the load and any handles are not slippery 你的手、货物及任何抓手的地方都不滑 If you are lifting with someone else, both of you know what you are doing before start 如果你与其他人一起搬运,你们两人在工作前都知道要做的是什么 备注:35 Correct Handling Techniques – Lifting 正确的搬运技术 — 搬起 You should use the following technique when lifting a load 搬起货物的技巧: Put your feet around the load, with your body over it (if this is not feasible, try to get your body as close as possible to the load) 将双个脚掌立在货物旁边,身体在重物上方(如果现场条件不允许 ,尽量将身体靠近货物) Use the muscles of your legs when lifting 搬起时使用腿部的肌肉 Straighten your back 挺直后背 Pull the load as close as possible to your body 尽量将重物地拉近身体 Lift and carry the load with straight downward turned arms 手臂下垂的姿势搬运货物 备注:36 Correct Handling Techniques – Lifting 正确的搬运技术 — 搬起 Pushing and pulling is done using the body’s own weight; lean forward when pushing, lean backwards when pulling 推和拉是用身体自身的重量完成的,前倾或后拉 You have enough grip on the floor to be able to lean forward,backwards 在向前或向后倾斜时,脚在路面上有足够的摩擦力 You avoid twisting and bending your back 避免扭转和弯曲背部 备注:37 Correct Handling Techniques - Pushing and Pulling 正确的搬运技术 — 推和拉 1.Handling devices have handles/hand grips so that you can use your hands to exert a force; handle height should be between the shoulder and waist so that you can push/pull in a good, neutral posture 搬运装置有手柄/把手,以便用手加力;手柄高度应在肩部和腰部之间,以便你在自然的姿势下推或拉 2.Handling devices are well-maintained so that the wheels have appropriate size and they run smoothly 维护好搬运设备,车轮大小适当,以便运行平稳 3.Floors are hard, even and clean 地面坚硬、平坦并且干净 备注:38 视频-人工搬运工作 1.从托盘上搬到传输带上 该视频演示了在工作场所的搬运工作,员工把纸箱从托盘上搬下来,然后搬到传输带上。 2.把成轧的电线放到轴心上 该视频演示了一名员工将成轧的电线从传输带上搬到处在不同高度的轴心上。 3.从传输带搬到储藏室 该视频演示了一名员工从传输带上搬起箱子,沿着走廊走到储藏室。 4.在糕点厂的搬运工作 该视频演示了一名员工从手推车上搬起一箱面粉,到楼上把面粉放在指定位置。 5.合作搬运从桌子上抬到托盘 上 该视频演示了两个人将一重容器从桌子上抬起来,放到地上的托盘上。 6.合作搬运从地上抬到托盘上 该视频演示了四个人将一重容器从地上抬起来,放在地上的托盘上。 视频链接:http://www.hse.gov.uk/msd/mac/introduction.htm 备注:39 Part 章 节 02 办公室环境的危害与风险 Hazards and Risks Associated with Office Work Environment 备注:40 用力 姿势 重复 接触 压力 出现在键盘和鼠标上。大力敲击,“击打”键盘。过度扭转和握鼠标。 锋利的边缘,没有或少量的垫子。大多出现在桌子的边缘或者胳膊悬空的位置。 急速运动而 很少中断来休息。 不舒服的身体姿势。 办公环境下的人机工程风险因素 风险因素 备注:41 Computer setup for optimum comfort 电脑安装成最舒适的状况 Seating 座椅 办公环境下的人机工程风险因素 Arrangement of other office equipment: 其它办公室设备的安放 Phone 电话 Documents 文件 Reference materials 参考资料 Others 其它 Environmental Factors 环境因素 Noise 噪音 Heat / Cold 热/冷 备注:42 正确的姿势和工作场所设计 脚放平或者踩在脚踏板上 膝盖成90度 大腿与地面平行 后背挺直,用椅子来支撑 上臂放松,靠近身体两侧 肘关节成90度直角 键盘和鼠标在肘关节的高度 显示屏的上端与的视线的高度 头/颈挺直,不要弯曲 前臂与地面平行,从肘关节开始,到手腕和手指成一条直线 显示屏与人的距离等于胳膊的长度 备注:43 MSD Hazard Identification in the computer workstation 电脑工作时的肌肉骨胳损伤的风险识别 The tool is to be used to identify job/task related MSD hazards for individual workers performing computer based jobs/tasks. 这个风险评估工具,是用来识别每个使用电脑的人员在工作中接触的肌肉骨骼损伤的危害因素。 备注:44 MSD Hazard Identification in the computer workstation 电脑工作时的肌肉骨胳损伤的风险识别 The tool needs to be used with the full participation and input of the worker who works at the computer workstation where the job/task is performed. Observations alone are not enough, and it is not appropriate for the person using the tool to base decisions only on what they see or think about a job. 使用该工具进行评估时,需要电脑使用人员提供信息,并全面参与。单靠评估人员的观察是不足够的,评估人员不能仅依靠它自己的观察和分析就做出评估结论。 MSD Hazard Identification in the computer workstation 电脑工作时的肌肉骨胳损伤的风险识别 备注:45 谢谢欣赏 THANK YOU 备注:46
部分内容预览 [文件共47页]
本文件共47页, 只能预览部分内容,查看全部内容需要下载
注:预览效果可能会出现部分文字乱码(如口口口)、内容显示不全等问题,下载是正常的。
文件大小:3.78 MB 共47页      文件格式:PPT
下载点数:19 点(VIP会员免费)
收藏本页到会员中心
网友评论 more
相关内容

没有相关信息!
创想安科网站简介会员服务广告服务业务合作提交需求会员中心在线投稿版权声明友情链接联系我们